# What is the Equity Premium Puzzle (EPP)?

## Why the equity premium is called a puzzle?

The equity premium is regarded as a puzzle because it is very difficult to explain how the returns on equities have been significantly higher on an average, compared to the returns on Treasury bonds, based upon investor risk aversion.

## How do you calculate equity premium?

The equity risk premium is calculated as the difference between the estimated real return on stocks and the estimated real return on safe bondsthat is, by subtracting the risk-free return from the expected asset return (the model makes a key assumption that current valuation multiples are roughly correct).

## What is the equity market premium?

Key Takeaways. An equity risk premium is an excess return earned by an investor when they invest in the stock market over a risk-free rate. This return compensates investors for taking on the higher risk of equity investing.

## What is the value premium puzzle?

The value premium puzzle is the empirical observation that the CAPM cannot explain the value premium, the difference between the high average excess returns of value stocks and the low average excess returns of growth stocks.

## How can government benefit from the equity premium puzzle?

When the price of the borrowed capital falls below the return rate in the capital markets, the government can issue bonds and invest the raised capital on the capital market. These leveraged investments yield a net profit to the government, which is reinforced when taking the equity premium puzzle into account.

## Why is the equity premium important?

The equity risk premium is widely used to forecast the growth of investment portfolios over the long term. It is also used as an input to the cost of capital in project choice, and employed as a factor in the expected rate of return to stocks.

## What is the volatility puzzle?

Finance textbooks say that more volatile assets should have higher returns. The volatility puzzle is that that doesn’t always hold true. … A five-year window was used to find the volatility of each of the stocks. For each month the volatility was broken into quintiles.

## What do you mean by equity?

Equity represents the value that would be returned to a company’s shareholders if all of the assets were liquidated and all of the company’s debts were paid off. We can also think of equity as a degree of residual ownership in a firm or asset after subtracting all debts associated with that asset.

## What is beta in CAPM?

What Is Beta? Beta is a measure of the volatilityor systematic riskof a security or portfolio compared to the market as a whole. Beta is used in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which describes the relationship between systematic risk and expected return for assets (usually stocks).

## How is CAPM calculated?

The capital asset pricing model provides a formula that calculates the expected return on a security based on its level of risk. The formula for the capital asset pricing model is the risk free rate plus beta times the difference of the return on the market and the risk free rate.

## What is the equity risk premium in CAPM?

What is Equity Risk Premium in CAPM? For an investor to invest in a stock, the investor has to be expecting an additional return than the risk-free rate of return, this additional return, is known as the equity risk premium because this is the additional return expected for the investor to invest in equity.

## What is risk premium example?

The estimated return minus the return on a risk-free investment is equal to the risk premium. For example, if the estimated return on an investment is 6 percent and the risk-free rate is 2 percent, then the risk premium is 4 percent. This is the amount that the investor hopes to earn for making a risky investment.

## What does a high equity risk premium mean?

Equity risk premium and the level of risk are directly correlated. The higher the risk, the higher is the gap between stock returns. Because the calculation of Capital Gain Yield involves the market price of a security over time, it can be used to analyze the fluctuation in the market price of a security.

## What’s the difference between market risk premium and equity risk premium?

The market risk premium is the additional return that’s expected on an index or portfolio of investments above the given risk-free rate. The equity risk premium pertains only to stocks and represents the expected return of a stock above the risk-free rate.

## Can myopic loss aversion explain the equity premium puzzle?

Behavioral economists have recently put forth a theoretical explanation for the equity premium puzzle based on combining myopia and loss aversion. Complementing the behavioral theory is evidence from laboratory experiments, which provide strong empirical support consistent with myopic loss aversion (MLA).

## What is equity capital cost?

What Is the Cost of Equity? The cost of equity is the return that a company requires to decide if an investment meets capital return requirements. Firms often use it as a capital budgeting threshold for the required rate of return.

## What is the January effect in the stock market?

The January Effect refers to the hypothesis that, in January, stock market prices have the tendency to rise more than in any other month. This is not to be confused with the January barometer, which posits that stocks’ performance in January is a leading indicator for stock performance throughout the entire year.

## What is high risk aversion?

The term risk-averse describes the investor who chooses the preservation of capital over the potential for a higher-than-average return. In investing, risk equals price volatility. A volatile investment can make you rich or devour your savings. A conservative investment will grow slowly and steadily over time.

## What is the risk-free rate puzzle?

The risk-free rate puzzle (RFRP) is a market anomaly observed in the persistent difference between the lower historic real returns of government bonds compared to equities. This puzzle is the inverse of the equity premium puzzle and looks at the disparity from the perspective of the lower returning government bonds.

## How do private placements work?

A private placement is a sale of stock shares or bonds to pre-selected investors and institutions rather than on the open market. It is an alternative to an initial public offering (IPO) for a company seeking to raise capital for expansion.

## What is the equity risk premium and why is it important?

The equity risk premium helps to set portfolio return expectations and determine asset allocation. A higher premium implies that you would invest a greater share of your portfolio into stocks. The capital asset pricing also relates a stock’s expected return to the equity premium.

Share premium is the credited difference in price between the par value, or face value, of shares, and the total price a company received for recently-issued shares.

## Why does equity risk premium increase?

The equity risk premium fluctuates with changes in the economy, inflation outlook, interest rates and monetary policy. When economic growth slows and the outlook for the stock market is gloomy, the equity risk premium is likely to increase.

## What is excessive volatility?

Shiller (1981) defines excess volatility as the volatility of the equity market that cannot be justified by variation in subsequent dividends.

## What is idiosyncratic volatility?

Based on asset-pricing models, idiosyncratic volatility measures the part of the variation in returns that cannot be explained by the particular asset-pricing model used.

## What is the value effect?

The value effect is the excess return that a portfolio of value stocks (stocks with a low market value relative to fundamentals) has, on average, earned over a portfolio of growth stocks (stocks with a high market value relative to fundamentals).

## What is equity example?

Equity is the ownership of any asset after any liabilities associated with the asset are cleared. For example, if you own a car worth \$25,000, but you owe \$10,000 on that vehicle, the car represents \$15,000 equity.

## What is equity and types of equity?

Equity share is a main source of finance for any company giving investors rights to vote, share profits, and claim on assets. Various types of equity share capital are authorized, issued, subscribed, paid-up, rights, bonus, sweat equity, etc.

## What is equity and how does it work?

Equity is the difference between what you owe on your mortgage and what your home is currently worth. If you owe \$150,000 on your mortgage loan and your home is worth \$200,000, you have \$50,000 of equity in your home.

## What does a beta of 1.5 mean?

Roughly speaking, a security with a beta of 1.5, will have move, on average, 1.5 times the market return. [More precisely, that stock’s excess return (over and above a short-term money market rate) is expected to move 1.5 times the market excess return).]

## What is beta and alpha?

Alpha measures the return of an asset compared to the underlying benchmark index. Hence, while beta is a measure of systematic risk and volatility, alpha is a measure of excess return.

## What is beta in WACC?

Unlevered beta is essentially the unlevered weighted average cost. This is what the average cost would be without using debt or leverage. To account for companies with different debts and capital structure, it’s necessary to unlever the beta. That number is then used to find the cost of equity.